Breast disease

The breast is composed of glands (lobules) and ducts (products) that carry milk to the nipple. There is also a supporting tissue, glasses, lymph and nerve endings.

In benign and malignant breast lesions can appear.

Benign lesions

  • Intraductal papilloma
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Tumor phillodes benigno

Premalignant lesions

  • Carcinoma ductal in situ: Wherein the malignant cells do not spread outside the ducts
  • Paget's disease of the breast: Cells that are located within the epithelium without disseminate,

Malignant lesions:

Also called invasive or infiltrating carcinoma. They extend malignant cells outside the basement membrane of the ducts or lobules.

  • Cancer mother: The most common type is called classically
  • Carcinoma Ductal Infiltrante: There are also other types such as lobular carcinoma.

Breast cancer

It is the most common malignancy in women in Catalonia and Spain. Y represents almost 30% tumors in women. It usually appears between 45 Y 65 years.

The number of cases has increased steadily in our country, and it is considered that one 8 women will get breast cancer throughout their lives

The most common symptoms include breast lump, discoloration that looks reddened, or edema, skin retraction or nipple, lump in the armpit. You also can not give any symptoms, especially if diagnosed early by mammography.

The diagnosis is made with mammography and ultrasound, allowing realization of Breast Biopsy. You can perform other tests such as MRI, fine needle aspiration, to complete the diagnosis.

Tumors were classified by TNM classification. the type of tumor should also be taken into account, histological grade.

It is also useful molecular classification of tumors (Luminal A y B, Her2 neu, Triple negative.

The type of treatment depends on the stage of TNM classification that is, and other features of the tumor tissue (type and histological grade, molecular classification). Generally, smaller and localized tumors are treated with surgery

Breast surgery

It involves removal of the tumor and assessment of the axilla, usually with axillary sentinel node biopsy.

  • breast conserving surgery: Always accompanied by post-operative radiotherapy or in some cases intraoperative radiotherapy, newest. Can be:
  • lumpectomy: Removes the tumor with a safety margin
  • quadrantectomy: Removes the tumor
  • radical breast surgery: TODAY simple mastectomy is performed, that removes the entire mammary gland.

Assessment of the axilla

The status of the axillary lymph allows prognostic information and choice of appropriate post tratamiuento.

  • selective axillary sentinel node biopsy: Is a technique that the first node that drains the tumor of the breast. To perform sentinel node biopsy are various techniques, the most used being the use of radioisotopes, nanocolloidal as albumin labeled 99m Tc, that they are injected into the breast before surgical intervention. The sentinel node status indicates the status of the other nodes in the armpit. If affectation, sometimes it is necessary to axillary lymphadenectomy.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy: It is a more radical intervention, the sentinel node. It includes the removal of most of the underarm lymph.

Surgery Oncoplastic

Sometimes removal of the breast tumor produces asymmetries and deformities become more devidentes after radiotherapy. Oncoplastic surgery techniques in the conservative treatment of breast cancer can improve the aesthetics of the breast. Oncoplastic surgery is a cancer target (local control of cancer) and the minimum change in the aesthetics of the breast, with minimal impact on body image (aesthetic goal).